A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. The Shang king would communicate with his ancestors on topics relating to the royal family, military success, weather forecasting, ritual sacrifices, and related topics by means of scapulimancyand the answers would be recorded on the divination material itself.
The solution to the problem of character ambiguityadopted about bc during the reign of the first Qin emperor, Shihuangdiwas to distinguish two words having the same sound and represented by the same graph by adding another graph to give a clue to the meaning of the particular word intended.
The basic stock of characters are simple graphs, some of which represent the names for objects or parts of objects, such as river, fish, man, and woman, and others of which stand for more abstract terms, such as yield, love, quarrel, prince, and the like.
In addition, regular script imposes a stroke orderwhich must be followed in order for the characters to be written correctly. Chinese family of scripts Chinese characters were first introduced into Japanese sometime in the first half of the first millennium AD, probably from Chinese products imported into Japan through Korea.
Complex characters consist of one graph representing the pronunciation of the character—that is, a graph standing for a set of similar sounding words based on the acrophonic principle combined with a second graph indicating the semantic category of the word.
The problem is intensified by the fact that neither the sound property nor the semantic property of the characters is of much help in the recognition of a character.
Phonemic orthography When an alphabet is adopted or developed to represent a given language, an orthography generally comes into being, providing rules for the spelling of words in that language. Before the beginning of the Christian Era the script came to be written with brush and ink on paper.
Each graph or character corresponds to one meaningful unit of the language, not directly to a unit of thought. Thai has a total of 59 symbols, consisting of 44 consonants, 13 vowels and 2 syllabics, not including 4 diacritics for tone marks and one for vowel length.
In this case it can be seen that the pronunciation of the character is slightly different from that of its phonetic indicator; the effect of historical sound change means that the composition of such characters can sometimes seem arbitrary today.
These basic motivated characters serve two other roles. There are approximately 1, of these simple characters or graphs. In later Pahlavi papyriup to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole—that is, they had become logograms as in Egyptian Demotic.
In most cases the semantic indicator is also the radical under which the character is listed in dictionaries. Chinese romanizationXiao'erjingPinyinZhuyinWade-Gilesand Gwoyeu Romatzyh Chinese characters do not reliably indicate their pronunciation, even for one dialect. The latter was not viewed as an impediment to the former; rather, it would ease the transition toward the exclusive use of an alphabetic or at least phonetic script.
Thus, the Chinese writing system requires thousands of characters to represent each of its unique morphemes. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas.
Immediately afterward, the mainland government began two parallel programs relating to written Chinese. For example, hollow circles mark the end of sentences and Western conventions such as the comma, exclamation point and question mark have been introduced.
The limitation is that a language that has thousands of morphemes would require thousands of characters, and, as the characters are formed from simple lines in various orientations and arrangements, they came to possess great complexity.
Chinese characters are arranged in dictionaries according to the radicals of which they are composed or with which they are traditionally associated. These syllables correspond to morphemes; each morpheme is one syllable long.
A graph that pictured some object was borrowed to write a different word that happened to sound similar. The longest European alphabet is the Latin-derived Slovak alphabet which has 46 letters. Asian alphabets. Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia.
In the chinese alphabet, small letters are written like capital letters, and vice versa. Until relatively recently, Chinese writing was more widely in use than alphabetic writing systems, and until the 18th century more than half of the world’s books were written in Chinese, including works of speculative thought, historical writings of a kind, and novels, along with writings on government and law.
The Chinese Alphabet. The Chinese writing system does not have an alphabet, which is a set of characters that represent units of sound or phonemes). Instead, the Chinese writing system is made up of an unlimited set of characters or logographs that represent a unit of meaning or morpheme (i.e., a word).
once invented by someone somewhere –better,ideograms – cf.
modern ideograms: $, &, £, ® • what happened to ideographic writing? The History of the Alphabet INTRODUCTION: Pre-Alphabetic Writing • Chinese writing is based on ideograms – hard to learn at first, so it takes Chinese The Alphabet and Spelling • but Chinese.
The first phonetic alphabet was invented by the Phoenicians,sometime before BCE. The letters in the English alphabet are a mix of ancient runecharacters and various Greek and Latin characters. It took over years to arrive at our modern English alphabet.Who created chinese writing alphabet